The principles of foreign welfare In each country social insurance of citizens has passed on its long journey, which largely depended on the course of history itself. But even despite the similarity of objectives and approaches to their decision are very different, especially when it comes to European and American models.
The distinctive features of American society in the process of formation of social sphere was the desire to reduce the state’s influence on the personal freedom of citizens, as well as the choice of the point of support only its own forces. That is so typical for this country the model of private provision.
In European countries, the history of the formation of this side of society has a much longer history and has considerable state involvement in the provision of various segments of the population. Here the control of state authorities over the spending of funds for social needs, while also reducing the financial losses (fight against corruption) is quite strong. In addition, residents of European countries have become accustomed to the idea that the state should care about citizens, so it is unlikely that the system of protection of all segments of the population here will ever be completely private.
Conventionally, all the existing models of social protection of the population can be divided into several groups: pension insurance; unemployment; accident; medical.
Europe protection of the population in these countries is carried out in two ways – social security and insurance. If we consider the pension cases, then here are retired citizens take in such cases: invalidity benefits; old-age benefits; survivor benefits.
Also in Sweden, UK and Finland, all released on a legal holiday, the person may receive two types of pensions – General insurance. The first is defined by the state as the minimum rate, the second depends on the experience. Payments as compensation from an accident are also divided into two categories – medical (if there is a fact of temporary disability) and pension (if disability is involved). In addition, in the Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal and Belgium such payment is exempt from taxes, while other countries have only limited tax benefits.
If we talk about the medical support, social insurance abroad in this industry are divided into: private (USA); mainly state (Canada, UK, Denmark, Ireland, the Scandinavian countries); mixed (France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland). The US is Particularly notable in this country is her own invention – voluntary medical insurance. The Constitution does not provide for state protection in the case of medical care. State aid is unable to exclusively civil servants – policemen, soldiers, officials, disabled, veterans. The remaining 80% of the population and covers voluntary insurance. The whole sphere of social welfare in America as a whole is divided into social assistance and insurance. For example, to receive a pension, you must have attained the age of 65 and have work experience of not less three months for every passing year from age 21 to 65 years. Minimum experience – 10 years. In General, the tax is payable to the Pension Fund, accounting for 15.3% of total income, with half of this amount paid by the employer. The most priority direction of reforming of social sphere in all countries is provision of pensions, support of low-income families, the disabled, taking care of children.